State of CTE: Career Advisement in Perkins V State Plans

February 16th, 2021

In October 2020, Advance CTE released “The State of Career Technical Education: An Analysis of States’ Perkins V Priorities,” which examines how states have leveraged the development of the Strengthening Career Technical Education for the 21st Century Act (Perkins V) state plans to expand quality and increase equity within their Career Technical Education (CTE) systems. 

Perkins V includes an increased focus on career development and advisement, which is critical for ensuring that each learner can learn about, access and be successful in high-quality CTE programs. Career development and advisement is also a crucial component of states’ equity strategies because they help learners navigate increasingly complex education and workforce development systems on their way to a rewarding career, as well as support the broader social emotional needs of CTE learners.

Perkins V plans indicate that states are undertaking a number of efforts, at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, to provide robust advisement and related supports for learners. Based on Advance CTE’s analysis of state Perkins V plans:

  • Nearly half of all state plans (22 total) prioritize advisement efforts at the secondary level through their comprehensive local needs assessment (CLNA) or local application processes, and 39 percent of states (20 total) indicate the same for the postsecondary level. 
  • Approximately 40 percent of states (21 total) indicate in their Perkins V state plans that they are using at least a portion of State Leadership dollars for advisement efforts at the secondary level. However, only 24 percent of states (12 total) do so at the postsecondary level. 

Another trend is the widespread state use of individual career academic plans (ICAPs) at the secondary level. While the degree that Perkins V funds directly support these efforts remains unclear, the fact that many states include references to their ICAPs in their state plans indicates that states are increasingly working toward more clearly connecting ICAPs to their CTE systems. 

State Strategies to Advance Career Advisement

Key Innovations

  • In Maryland, the state education agency is collaborating with the Maryland Business Roundtable for Education to recruit and prepare industry professionals to serve as career counselors at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This initiative aims to increase the overall capacity of the state to provide robust career counseling services to all Maryland learners. 
  • Hawaii identified counseling and advising as a critical need in their CLNA and are designing a continuum of counseling and advising, which includes the development of a statewide framework including operational definitions, standards and expectations, and  guidance materials in fiscal year 2021.

The Work Ahead

Many state plans do not distinguish between initiatives that are specifically driven by Perkins V and other efforts that states may already be undertaking to expand career development and advisement efforts. The work ahead lies in ensuring strong connections between CTE and advisement at the state, district, school and institutional level to collectively support each learner. 

States must also attend to providing robust career development and advisement for learners at all levels. For example, while 90 percent of states are allowing Perkins V funds to be used for middle grades, most are leaving the decision of whether and how to support middle grades to local districts. There is a clear state role in supporting the expansion of middle grade advisement efforts so that learners can be fully aware of the opportunities available to them when exploring career paths and be better prepared for success by the time they enroll in a high school CTE program. 

Additionally, given their role in helping learners transition to the workplace, postsecondary advisement activities are an especially important area that many state Perkins V plans do not address in any way. Ensuring that there are more robust support systems for learners at every level of CTE will help close opportunity gaps and position more learners for success.

Resources

Christina Koch, Policy Associate
Jill Cook, Executive Director, American School Counselor Association (ASCA)

 

State of CTE: Data Quality in Perkins V State Plans

February 8th, 2021

In an education and workforce landscape that is more complex than ever, quality Career Technical Education (CTE) programming provides students with experience and skills that can lead to high-value jobs and lifelong success. The passage of the Strengthening Career Technical Education for the 21st Century Act (Perkins V) pushed states to improve quality and increase equity within their CTE systems, including setting higher expectations for how states are using data about CTE programs to understand the outcomes of students they serve. In October 2020, Advance CTE released “The State of Career Technical Education: An Analysis of States’ Perkins V Priorities,” which examines how states have leveraged the opportunities create by the updated law to meet their CTE goals, including whether states have prioritized investments in data to ensure that they can answer priority questions and measure progress toward those goals. While many states are making improvements to CTE data, more can be done to ensure that these efforts result in meaningful information for all stakeholders.

Perkins V Creates A Foundation for Better Data Practices.

Perkins V puts greater emphasis on the importance of data as a core element of good policy-making, including: 

  • promoting evidence-based decision making, 
  • making data available and accessible so that all stakeholders can use it to identify and close access and opportunity gaps among learners, 
  • providing transparent dashboards and other tools that enable communities to explore performance data for all groups of students served by CTE programs,
  • ensuring programs are well aligned with labor market needs, and 
  • investing in the programs and learner supports that lead to the best outcomes for each learner. 

States should embrace and thoughtfully implement all of these activities and continue to go beyond what is outlined in the law to enhance the quality and availability of CTE data, and to build trust and fuel the feedback loops that help demonstrate program efficacy. With better information, leaders, practitioners and learners will have the capacity and confidence to make data-informed decisions that result in better outcomes. 

States Are Taking Steps to Improve the Availability and Usability of CTE Data.

Based on Advance CTE’s analysis of state Perkins V plans, a number of states are prioritizing data in their implementation of Perkins, including:      

  • More than one-third of states (19 total) are developing new public reporting tools for their CTE programs. Many of these investments appear to be aimed at equity-related data tools or related visualizations. More broadly, about a half of states (53 percent) are providing dashboards or other data reports to support equity gap analyses at the local level.
  • Another third of states (17 total) are directing at least some of their State Leadership funds to support data quality improvement and expanding CTE data collection capacity.
  • Eight percent of states are using the reserve fund for data quality and reporting.

Key Innovations

  • Hawai‘i is using a monitoring framework, informed by a data reporting application, that will identify which CTE programs have disparities, misalignments, or inequities in program offerings, participation and achievement of educational and workforce outcomes to develop improvement strategies that address the root causes.
  • Washington is investing Perkins funds to improve labor market tools. One is a public dashboard that will support predicting new and existing employment opportunities and future trends. Another dashboard will display data disaggregated by student subgroup, special population status, and CTE program, which will only be available to colleges.  The dashboards will be updated annually as enrollment and completion data from the previous year become available.

The Work Ahead

Many states are embracing the opportunities afforded to them under the new law, yet more work lies ahead. Improving CTE data affects not only the field of CTE, but the full education to workforce (P-20W) ecosystem within a state with which CTE is interconnected. As states plan for next steps when it comes to investing CTE resources, they should:

  • Ensure that CTE data is understandable and usable by a wide array of stakeholders to support high stakes decision-making (e.g., to support resource allocation decisions to equitably serve each learner); 
  • Invest in the data infrastructure underlying states’ CTE systems so that it robust and ready to be connected to data in other state systems that can provide value back to CTE leaders (e.g., while there are some notable exceptions to this finding, state investments in postsecondary data infrastructure are largely absent as part of the Perkins V planning process). 
  • Expand the audience for and attention on CTE data by including it alongside other data on prominent, public-facing tools like state and local report cards required by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA).
  • As Perkins V implementation gets more fully underway, ensure that CTE leaders are at the table with other state leaders so that future federal and state investments in systems and capacity include CTE data and result in improvements to CTE data quality and availability at all levels.

Resources

Christina Koch, Policy Associate
Jane Clark, Associate Director, Policy and Advocacy, Data Quality Campaign 

 

State of CTE: Dual Enrollment in Perkins V State Plans

February 2nd, 2021

In October 2020, Advance CTE released “The State of Career Technical Education: An Analysis of States’ Perkins V Priorities,” which examines how states have leveraged the development of the Strengthening Career Technical Education for the 21st Century Act (Perkins V) state plans to expand quality and increase equity within their Career Technical Education (CTE) systems. 

Perkins V is an important federal education statute that charges states to develop high-quality programs of study that build coherent, options-rich connections between middle, high school, college, and careers. A high-quality program of study should offer on and off-ramps for learners along their pathways and create seamless transitions between K-12, postsecondary institutions and the workforce. One key aspect of quality that is a priority within states’ plans was the expansion of dual/concurrent enrollment. These early postsecondary opportunities are critical because they help CTE learners understand their post-high school options, earn degrees or credentials faster, saving them time and money and prioritizing their individual needs.  

Approximately one-third of high school graduates take courses for postsecondary credit at some point during their educational careers. Historically, about a third of all dual credits earned have been in CTE courses. Participating in these opportunities can lead to higher rates of college enrollment and success, as they demonstrate to learners that they are prepared for college-level work and enable them to get a headstart on their credential or degree. Ensuring there is equitable access to these programs is an important part of building educational cultures where each learner, especially learners of color, can see college as a viable option.

One foundational way that Perkins V elevates the focus on dual/concurrent enrollment is through the introduction of a new secondary program quality indicator. States can choose from three options — work-based learning, recognized postsecondary credentials (credentials of value), and postsecondary credit attainment (dual/concurrent enrollment and articulation). 

Advance CTE’s analysis of state Perkins V plans found that states largely took up the mantle of supporting and expanding early postsecondary opportunities. Generally, many of these state decisions represent a continuation of prior commitments to programs of study and ensuring seamless transitions between secondary and postsecondary. 

  • More than half of the states (28 total) include dual/concurrent enrollment or articulation as part of their CTE program approval process.
  • About a quarter of states (13 total) have selected postsecondary credit attainment as at least one of their secondary CTE program quality indicators within their Perkins V accountability system.
  • Forty-one percent of states (21 total) are prioritizing dual/concurrent enrollment and articulation within their comprehensive local needs assessment (CLNA) or local application for Perkins eligible recipients.
  • A quarter of states (12 total) are leveraging Reserve Funds to advance dual/concurrent enrollment.
  • A third of states (17 total) are leveraging Perkins to develop statewide articulation agreements.

State Strategies to Advance Dual/Concurrent Enrollment and Articulation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key Innovations

  • Illinois will utilize disaggregated data to identify and provide targeted technical assistance, more effective resource allocation and enhanced continuous quality improvement efforts to address equity gaps in dual enrollment. This will require better communication to underrepresented students and their families regarding dual credit options, including the courses offered, the impact on a student’s career trajectory, and the related career opportunities that align with each program.
  • Connecticut’s College Career Pathway (CCP) program provides high school students with the opportunity to complete postsecondary coursework before graduation. The state requires its Perkins eligible recipients that have a CCP or another similar articulation agreement with a postsecondary institution to dedicate, at minimum, 5 percent of their local Perkins grant to support these efforts. Further encouraging collaboration in this area, postsecondary eligible recipients in the state must use a minimum of $20,000 of their local Perkins grant in support of these partnerships. 

The Work Ahead

Most states’ focus within their Perkins V plans was around providing secondary learners early postsecondary credit opportunities. While these efforts are critical to help learners transition from secondary to postsecondary education, more can still be done to facilitate transitions at the postsecondary level. States should continue efforts to develop additional pathways to help postsecondary and adult learners translate experiences in non-credit programs to pathways that provide credit, through efforts such as credit for prior learning. 

Similarly, state Perkins V plans rarely included efforts to support transitions from two-year institutions to four-year institutions. One of the best ways to achieve this goal is through statewide articulation agreements to ensure full transferability of any credits that are earned by learners. Yet only a third of states are prioritizing the creation of statewide articulation agreements in their Perkins plans, including some states that previously had such agreements in place.  

Finally, states need to continue to ensure that dual/concurrent and articulation opportunities are meaningful, equitable and fully aligned to a learner’s program of study. For instance, only about half of states that are using postsecondary credit attainment as their secondary CTE program quality measure explicitly require that these credits be related to a learner’s CTE program of study or wider career pathway, which is required by the law. States need to make intentional decisions about which courses count and how many credits are earned and collect and use the data on which credits are actually articulated, by which learners, across institutions.

Resources

Christina Koch, Policy Associate
Amy Williams, Executive Director, National Alliance of Concurrent Enrollment Partnerships

The State of CTE: Work-Based Learning in Perkins V State Plans

January 27th, 2021

Work-based learning offers students opportunities to deepen classroom learning, explore future career fields and demonstrate skills in an authentic setting. These experiences are increasingly a priority for states across all career and technical education (CTE) learner levels. Recently, provisions for work-based learning have been greatly expanded by the Strengthening Career Technical Education for the 21st Century Act (Perkins V). 

These provisions include the first formal federal definition for “work-based learning,” which allows a multitude of activities to count as a work-based learning experience. Given that this definition of work-based learning is broad, it is important that states consider what constitutes quality work-based learning so that each student’s experience is meaningful and results in tangible outcomes.

Perkins V also now supports work-based learning through the new secondary program quality indicator. States can choose from three indicator options: work-based learning, recognized postsecondary credentials (credentials of value) and postsecondary credit attainment (dual enrollment and articulation). These are all components of a high-quality CTE program of study, in addition to critical elements like rigorous standards, quality assessments, and alignment to high-skill, high-wage and in-demand career opportunities. 

In October 2020, Advance CTE released a report entitled, “The State of Career Technical Education: An Analysis of States’ Perkins V Priorities,” which examines how states have leveraged the development of the Perkins V state plans to expand quality and increase equity within their CTE systems. Advance CTE found that states largely took up the mantle of supporting and expanding work-based learning. Notably:

  • Thirty-four states use work-based learning in their size, scope and quality definitions. This definition is used as a litmus test by states to determine Perkins V funding eligibility, among other uses.
  • Twenty-four states and the District of Columbia are prioritizing work-based learning as part of their comprehensive local needs assessment process or local application process.
  • Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia include work-based learning as a factor when approving new or existing CTE programs.
  • Sixteen states are developing definitions, frameworks or related standards to further support the implementation of these opportunities with Perkins resources.

These findings indicate that states are still in the process of building systems and related supports to bring work-based learning to scale.

State Strategies to Advance Work-Based Learning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key Innovations

  • In Delaware, learner participation in a work-based learning experience is a required component of all state-approved CTE programs of study, and the state is funding a statewide work-based learning intermediary. Delaware takes these efforts even further in its Perkins V plan, ensuring close collaboration across state CTE and workforce development systems to provide youths and adults with disabilities the supports they need to complete work-based learning experiences. 
  • Texas is leveraging Perkins V to expand upon its work-based learning system and opportunities. With Perkins resources, Texas is making extensive use of virtual schools to allow learners to participate in virtual work-based learning experiences. This option is important in communities, especially rural areas, where work-based learning opportunities may be limited. In the short term, the option is even more critical given the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Work Ahead

Perkins V structures the work-based learning program quality measure around learner participation. As a result, states are not required to comparably structure this measure around completion or attainment. However, it’s important that work-based learning program quality measures are defined robustly and focus on completion of meaningful and rigorous work-based learning experiences that set learners up for success. With over half of states now counting work-based learning within their Perkins V accountability systems, the work ahead is significant yet critical to scaling high-quality and equitable work-based learning experiences.

Christina Koch, Policy Associate
Tom Keily, Senior Policy Analyst, Education Commission on the States

TAACCCT Legacy for Healthcare Programs

May 4th, 2020

The Trade Associated Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grant program, originally created in 2010, was at the time the largest-ever federal investment in community colleges. TAACCCT awarded grants for community college programs that enhance job-driven skills through innovative workforce development programs, with a focus on creating or updating programs of study to improve the ability of community colleges to provide workers with the education and skills to succeed in high-wage, high-skill occupations.

Between 2011 and 2018, The U.S. Department of Labor made 256 awards through four rounds of competitive grants. Of the 729 postsecondary institutions funded, 630 (85 percent) were community colleges. Of all community colleges in the U.S., approximately two-thirds secured TAACCCT funding to engage in reforms to build capacity to deliver integrated education and workforce training.

Although the grants have run their course, the legacy remains. The programmatic infrastructure created through the TAACCCT program continues today in addressing the education and workforce needs of these local programs. Additionally, new legislation introduced builds on the success of this program for future economic recovery. The Relaunching America’s Workforce Act was introduced in the House of Representatives last Friday and includes proposing $2 billion to restart the TAACCCT grant program.

As communities nationwide are responding to COVID-19 (Coronavirus), the need for training a robust health care workforce has become even more urgent, and healthcare industry programs created as part of TAACCCT can help to offer guidance for future programs. 

On April 16, New America hosted a webinar that explored the role and legacy of TAACCCT created programs and the impact these programs have in continuing to innovate and support building a strong healthcare workforce. 

One of the highlighted TAACCCT grantees includes a consortium program in Missouri called MoHealthWINs. MoHealthWINs created programs that included creating scalable, online and virtual learning platforms to expand access to learners that weren’t previously available. Additionally, enhanced advising helped to ensure learners remained on-track along their career pathway to achieve their goals. One of the most successful components of MoHealthWINs focused on the creation and maintenance of strong relationships with local employers, which helped learners to be prepared with the skills needed in their local community. The success of the program included over 88 percent of attempted credit hours completed, and 75 percent of completers who started as unemployed were able to find employment upon completion.

As the national focus shifts from immediate pandemic response to economic recovery, our nation needs a program like TAACCCT to help to ensure that postsecondary institutions have the resources to create nimble programs that can respond to changing labor needs and equip learners with the skills they need to succeed.

Advance CTE promotes including a TAACCCT-like program as a priority in any next round of stimulus legislation and in our recommendations for the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act.

Samuel Dunietz, Senior Associate for Federal Policy

States Enact Policies to Support Work-based Learning Opportunities for Students

March 18th, 2020

As the legislative sessions move forward, states have passed laws to examine and increase work-based learning opportunities for learners.

Some states, such as New Jersey, plan to launch pilot programs to expand access to work-based learning opportunities. In New Jersey, the state legislature passed S3065 in January to direct the Commissioner of Education to establish a three-year youth apprenticeship pilot program. The program will allow high school and college students to develop critical employability skills while earning a high school diploma or postsecondary credential. Employers participating in the program must pay the apprentice and offer an industry-recognized credential upon the completion of the program. 

Other states are leveraging graduation requirements to incentivize work-based learning opportunities for students. In Virginia, Governor Ralph Northam signed HB516 into law in March. The law requires the Virginia Board of Education to include options for students to complete a high-quality work-based learning opportunity or a dual enrollment course in its high school graduation requirements. 

In Tennessee, Governor Bill Lee signed HB736 into law in March to examine opportunities available to learners. The law requires the Office of Research and Education Accountability (OREA) to study and report on whether community schools are providing on-the-job training opportunities to learners by working with community partners or businesses. Specifically, the law directs OREA to examine the number of learners participating in on-the-job training opportunities provided by community schools and whether these opportunities have resulted in students obtaining employment after high school.

Brianna McCain, Policy Associate

Governors Celebrate and Commit to Advancing CTE in 2020 State of the State Addresses

February 10th, 2020

Over 35 Governors have delivered their State of the State Addresses, presenting their policy agendas for 2020 to their state legislatures. Many of these governors used this opportunity to highlight successes related to Career Technical Education (CTE) and to make commitments that would help to advance the field.

Many governors leveraged their State of the State Addresses to address CTE funding. In Maine, Governor Janet Mill acknowledged that there has not been significant funding for CTE program equipment since 1998 and asked the Maine Legislature to fund equipment upgrades for CTE programs. In Iowa, Governor Kim Reynolds celebrated expanding high-school registered apprenticeships and proposed $1 million in funding for work-based learning coordinators. Governor Doug Ducey also called for more CTE related funding in Arizona, proposing funding for CTE trade programs aligned with high-demand careers.

Other governors celebrated their states’ work-based learning efforts. In Colorado, Governor Jared Polis celebrated his administration’s expansion of apprenticeships. Similarly, in Tennessee, Governor Bill Lee recognized the new investments in youth apprenticeships launched by the Tennessee Department of Labor and Workforce Development. In Virginia, Governor Ralph Northam noted the role apprenticeship programs play in helping Virginians develop skills needed for careers.

Governors also used the State of the State Addresses to announce and celebrate initiatives. In New Jersey, Governor Phil Murphy proposed Jobs NJ, which aims to align the state’s education system to meet workforce needs and address racial equity gaps in the workforce. In Washington, Governor Jay Inslee celebrated the state’s Career Connect Learning initiative, which was launched in 2017 to connect Washington youth to career-connected learning opportunities aligned with in-demand, high-wage careers.

In total, more than 16 governors celebrated or made commitments to foster CTE in their states during their State of the State Addresses. Advance CTE will continue to monitor the State of the State Addresses as they happen for their relevance to CTE.

Brianna McCain, Policy Associate

States Passed At Least 208 Policies to Support CTE in 2019

January 29th, 2020

On the federal and state levels, 2019 was an important year for Career Technical Education (CTE). In addition to creating their four-year state plans for the federal Strengthening Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century Act (Perkins V), at least 45 states and Palau enacted at least 208 policy actions related to CTE and career readiness.

Today, Advance CTE, the Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE) and the Education Commission of the States released the seventh annual State Policies Impacting CTE: Year in Review report, examining 2019 legislative activity, including legislation, execution orders, board of education actions and budget provisions. To develop the report Advance CTE, ACTE and Education Commission of the States reviewed state activity, cataloged all finalized state action and coded activity based on the policy area of focus. In 2019, states most frequently addressed the following topics:

  • Funding;
  • Industry Partnerships and Work-based Learning;
  • Industry-recognized credentials;
  • Governance; and
  • Access and Equity.

In total at least 41 states enacted policies that affected CTE, making funding the most common policy category for the seventh year in a row. Illinois increased funding for CTE programming by $5 million, while Massachusetts and Delaware both invested in work-based learning programs. For the second year in a row, industry partnerships and work-based learning was the second most common policy category with at least 35 states taking action in this area. In Connecticut, the legislature passed a law to require the Connecticut Department of Labor and the Board of Regents for Higher Education to jointly establish nontraditional pathways to earning a bachelor’s degree through apprenticeships, while Colorado enacted a law to launch a statewide resource directory for apprenticeships.

Most states have taken action relevant to CTE since the Year in Review report was launched and in total more than 60 policies passed in 2019 than 2018. This indicates a continued commitment from state leaders to advance CTE. To view previous years’ Year in Review reports, click here. Advance CTE, ACTE and Education Commission of the States will be joined by Texas to discuss these policies in more depth on February 18 from 3-4 p.m. EST- to register for the webinar, click here.

Brianna McCain, Policy Associate

New Resources Available on Statewide Efforts to Boost Career Training

November 18th, 2019

Advance CTE has added new resources to the Learning that Works Resource Center that highlight recent state efforts to coordinate across systems and strengthen career readiness training. Delaware, for example, is building out its capacity to increase postsecondary attainment by scaling regional career pathways and work-based learning. Similarly, Rhode Island is leveraging its New Skills for Youth (NSFY) grant to restructure the state’s entire talent pipeline and strengthen connections across education and workforce systems. Since 2015, Rhode Island has seen a 56 percent increase in the number of Career Technical Education (CTE) programs, a 38 percent increase in Advanced Placement course participation, and a tripling of the number of college credits earned by high school students. 

Massachusetts, another state that was awarded the NSFY grant, is also coordinating activities to significantly expand access to high-quality CTE programs. So far, increased investments in technical training equipment have led to a rapid expansion of the state’s career training capacity, resulting in more than 10,000 additional students enrolling in career training programs across Massachusetts. 

To learn more about these initiatives and related work, visit Advance CTE’s Resource Center

Student Leaders On Capitol Hill, Calls for Doubling the Investment in CTE

October 10th, 2019

This past month, hundreds of student leaders came to Washington D.C. for SkillsUSA’s Washington Leadership Training Institute (WLTI) and the Family, Career and Community Leaders of America’s (FCCLA) Capitol Leadership training. Both programs offer training and leadership development activities for youth Career and Technical Student Organization (CTSO) leaders.

SkillsUSA hosted over 550 students and advisors from 29 states at the WLTI. This year’s conference included training on personal and workplace skills, a panel discussion about effective legislative visits with experts from Capitol Hill, and a wreath laying ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery. FCCLA’s annual Capitol Leadership training also provided students an opportunity to share their Career Technical Education (CTE) experiences with elected officials, while also developing their communication and collaborative skills.

Advance CTE’s Policy Fellow, Jade Richards, spoke with both groups of students and provided an overview of CTE funding at the national level. Students later went to Capitol Hill and passionately communicated to their representatives the impact of CTE in their communities, as well as the need to double the federal investment in CTE.

As a long-standing advocate for policies and legislation that enhance high-quality CTE programs across the country, Advance CTE is committed to empowering students leaders in America. Join us and the CTE community as we continue the campaign to create a brighter future for learners, businesses and communities everywhere.

Visit Isupportcte.org to learn more about the importance of doubling the federal investment in CTE. Email IsupportCTE@careertech.org for questions and updates on the campaign. 

SkillsUSA 2019 WLTI U.S. Capitol Photo

 

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